A custom-built microscope is giving scientists the closest view yet of living nerve synapses.
Although sleepy people had trouble interpreting happiness and sadness in a recent study, they had no problem doing so with other emotions—anger, fear, surprise, and disgust.
How does a galaxy like our own Milky Way form? Until now there’s been a lot of inferring involved in answering that question.
In the decades following the work of physiologist Ivan Pavlov and his famous salivating dogs, scientists have discovered how molecules and cells in the brain learn to associate two stimuli, such as Pavlov’s bell and the resulting food.
Considering how different they look from the outside, it might be surprising that all vertebrates – animals with a backbone – share the same, conserved set of organs. Chickens, fish, human beings – all have hearts, livers, brains, kidneys and so on. Each of these organs performs a specialized set of functions.